2.1: Matter

2.1: Matter

Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules; Chemical compounds; States: solid, liquid & gaseous; Changes between states.

2.2: Mechanics

2.2: Mechanics

Statics
Forces, moments & couples, representaton as vectors; Centre of gravity; Elements of theory of stress, strain & elasticity: tension, compression, shear & torsion; Nature & properties of solid, fluid & gas; Pressure & buoyancy in liquids (barometers).


Kinetics
Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line, motion under constant acceleration (motionunder gravity); Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifugal/centripetal forces);
Periodic motion: pendular movement; Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance; Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.

Dynamics

a) Mass, Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential, kinetic and total energy), heat, efficiency;

b) Momentum, conservation of momentum; Impulse; Gyroscopic principles; Friction: nature & effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance).

Fluid Dynamics

a) Specific gravity & density;

b) Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining; effects of compressibility on fluids; Static, dynamic & total pressure: Bernoulli's Theorem, venturi.

2.3: Thermodynamics

2.3: Thermodynamics

a) Temperature: thermometers & temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit & Kelvin; Heat definition

b) Heat capacity, specific heat; Heat transfer convection, radiation & conduction; Volumetric expansion; First & second law of thermodynamics; Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat at constant volume & constant volume & pressure, work done by expanding gas; Isothermal, adiabatic expansion & compression, engine cycles, constant volume & constant pressure, refrigerators & heat pumps; Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy, heat of combustion.

2.4: Optics (Light)

2.4: Optics (Light)

Nature of light; speed of light; Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces,
reflection by spherical mirrors, refraction, lenses; Fibre optics.

2.5: Wave Motion & Sound

2.5: Wave Motion & Sound

Wave motion: mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interference phenomena, standing waves; Sound: speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch & quality, Doppler effect.

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