4.1: Semiconductors

4.1: Semiconductors


a) Symbols; Characteristics & properties; Diodes in series & parallel; Main characteristics & use of silicon controlled rectifiers (thyristors), light emitting diode, photo conductive diode, varistor, rectifier diodes; Functional testing of diodes.

b) Materials, electron configuration, electrical properties; P & N type materials: effects of impurities on conduction, majority & minority characters; PN junction in a semiconductor, development of a potential across a PN junction in unbiased, forward biased and reverse biased conditions; Diode parameters: peak inverse voltage, maximum forward current, temperature, frequency, leakage current, power dissipation; Operation and function of diodes in the following circuits: clippers, clampers, full and half wave rectifiers, bridge rectifiers, voltage doublers and triplers; Detailed operation and characteristics of the following devices: silicon controlled rectifier(thyristor), light emitting diode, Shottky diode, photocondiuctive diode, varactor diode, varistor, rectifier diodes, Zener diode.


a) symbols; Component description & orientation; characteristics & properties.

b) Construction and operation of PNP & NPN transistors; Base, collector & emitter configurations: Testing of transistors; Basic appreciation of other transistor types & their uses; Application of transistors: classes of amplifier (A, B, C); Simple circuits including: bias, decoupling, feedback and stabilisation; Multistage circuit principles: cascades, push-pull, oscillators, multivibrators, flip-flop circuits.

Integrated Circuits

a) Description & operation of logic circuits & linear circuits / operational amplifiers.

b) Description & operation of logic circuits & linear circ uits; Introduction to operation & function of an operational amplifier used as: integrator, differentiator, voltage follower, comparator; Operation & amplifier stages connecting methods: resistive capacitive, inductive (transformer), inductive resistive (IR), direct; Advantages & disadvantages of positive & negative feedback.

4.2: Printed Circuit Boards

4.2: Printed Circuit Boards

Description & use of printed circuit boards.

4.3: Servomechanisms

4.3: Servomechanisms

a) Understanding of the following terms: Open & closed loop systems, feedback, follow up, analogue transducers; Principles of operation & use of the following synchro system components/ features: resolvers, differential, control & torque, transformers, inductance & capacitance transmitters.

b) Understanding of the following terms: Open & closed loop, follow up, servomechanism, analogue, transducer, null, damping, feedback, deadband; Construction operation & use of the following synchro system components: resolvers, differential, control & torque, E and I transformers, inductance transmitters, capacitance transmitters, synchronous transmitters; Servomechanism defects, reversal of synchro leads, hunting.


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